What is Obesity?
What are the Obesity Symptoms?
Obesity is defined as excessive fat accumulation in the body that will disrupt health. Obesity, which invites many negative health problems from diabetes, heart diseases, infertility to cancer, is a treatable disease. While obesity is caused by excessive and wrong eating habits, sedentary life, genetic transition, hormonal factors; solving all these requires experience and knowledge.
What is obesity?
Obesity can be described as an excessive increase in the ratio of body fat to lean mass. The definition of obesity, in other words, people are overweight according to their height. Obesity progresses rapidly in the world and in our country. Obesity rates are increasing day by day. Obesity is a disease that decreases the quality of life as the life expectancy increases, decreases the production capacity of people and must be treated.
What are the symptoms of obesity?
The first sign of obesity is the increase in the rate of fat in the body. Body Mass Index (BMI) helps to understand whether there is obesity in patients. Body Mass Index calculation, also known as the obesity calculation method, can be made by dividing the body weight in kilograms by the height in m2.
For example, 75 kilograms, 1.70 mt. The obesity calculation of a person of the height can be as follows:
75 kilograms /1.70 height * 1.70
2.89 = 25.95 (overweight)
Likewise, with a weight of 90 kilograms, 1.70 mt. The obesity calculation of a person of the height is as follows:
90 kilograms / 1.70 * 1.70
2.89 = 31.14 (in the group with increased Obesity-Diabetes and other diseases)
Accordingly, BMI is defined in 6 classes. You can learn your Body Mass Index according to your height and weight according to the following data:
Bulk (overweight) 25-29.9 (slightly increased risk of diabetes and heart disease)
Obese 1 (Obesity) 30-34.9 (diabetes and other disease risks gradually increase)
Obese 2 (Morbid obesity) 35-39.9
Obese 3 (Super morbid obesity)> 40 (risk of fatal diseases)
In other words, a body mass index of over 30 is called obesity. Over 40 is called morbid obesity and over 50 is called super morbid obesity. Obesity patients may also experience symptoms such as snoring, excessive sweating, sleep apnea, pain in the joints and back, infection due to skin irritation, and being exhausted by even the slightest movement.
What causes obesity?
Obesity has many causes. However, the biggest factor in the development of this disease is sedentary life and unhealthy nutrition. It is possible to list all the reasons that cause obesity as follows:
- Excessive and wrong eating habits
- Lack of physical activity
- Age, gender, education level, socio-cultural factors, income status
- Hormonal and metabolic factors
- Genetic, psychological factors
- Apply very low energy diets at frequent intervals
- Smoking and alcohol use habits
- Some drugs used (antidepressants, etc.)
- Number of births and frequent birth intervals
- Insufficient intake of breast milk
How is obesity diagnosed?
Obesity diagnosis is made according to the result of calculation of Body Mass Index most practically. The patient’s history and problems are heard by the physician. Besides the Body Mass Index, the measurement of waist circumference is important. Because this figure helps in evaluating the risk of diseases that may occur due to obesity.
Obesity-related diseases can be listed as follows:
- Type 2 diabetes
- High blood fat and cholesterol
- Fatty liver
- Cardiovascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis
- Joint disorders
- Sleep apnea
- Ovarian cysts and related menstrual irregularities in women
- Excessive hair growth
- Buried penis and hormonal disorders in boys
- Some cancers
How is obesity treatment?
Obesity is actually based on a simple equation. If more energy is taken in than the body needs, this is stored. Unless there is an underlying genetic / metabolic disease, either excessive food intake, lack of energy consumption or the combination of both are in question. Here, we come across medical nutrition as the first treatment option. At this point, it should be determined “personally” from which sources and how often the calories will be taken.
The goal of diets is not to comply with one-to-one lists, but to ensure that the person receives an education that he can stretch, make changes in places, continue and, most importantly, make a lifestyle. In addition to nutrition, the right exercise should be done. Medical methods come to the fore as the second treatment option.
Healthy secretion of hormones is of great importance in obesity. Tasks such as the transmission of hunger, eating and satiety signals to the brain, the use of sugar, protein and fat in foods, metabolic response to exercise or stress are completely under the control of hormones. Disruption of the balance in hormones can bring obesity. In this case, weight control can be achieved by correcting the underlying endocrine problem with medication or surgery.
However, it can be dangerous for people with a normally functioning endocrine system to take such hormone medications. These methods should not be tried without consulting an endocrinologist. For example, hormones such as insulin, gralin, leptin, thyroid, growth are important hormones in weight gain and loss. In addition to these, there is GLP-1 hormone in the last part of the small intestines, which creates a feeling of satiety. GLP-1 regulates insulin release in the body and transmits a signal to the hunger-satiety center in the brain. Quick satiety and late hunger can be achieved with medical treatments related to the GLP-1 hormone.
Medical treatment involves the patient injecting himself once a day at the dose given by the endocrinologist. Although its use is similar to the insulin used by people with diabetes, the content of the injection is not insulin. Although it has been developed within the scope of diabetes treatment, it can also be used in the treatment of obesity in individuals without diabetes. GLP-1 analogs help with diet, but regulate mechanisms that make weight loss difficult. However, while doing this, it should be kept in mind that no drug has a direct fat burning effect.
Losing weight occurs with the patient’s compliance with the treatment. It takes care to maintain it as well as lose weight. Another obesity treatment is obesity surgery. While less success is achieved with diet and exercise in the treatment of obesity, this rate is quite high in surgery.
Obesity surgery not only improves the aesthetic appearance of the person, but also contributes positively to the quality of life. Therefore; It is very important to achieve permanent weight loss with surgery against diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, psychological disorders and sleep apnea.
The method in obesity surgery is determined individually. After a comfortable operation, patients can return to their work and social life in a short time and reach their ideal weight with appropriate planning.
What causes obesity?
Considered as a disease of the age, obesity emerges as a health problem characterized by the increase in the amount of fat in the body at a level that will disrupt health. Obesity is a disease that increases health expenditures in the world and in our country, decreases the life comfort of individuals and must be treated without wasting time.
Obesity, which occurs as a result of unhealthy eating habits combined with a sedentary lifestyle, is the starting point of many health problems. Sleep apnea, asthma, polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, gall bladder diseases, gout, fatty liver, osteoarthritis, irregular menstruation, respiratory distress, migraine and various types of cancer are among these health problems. It is also a trigger for psychological questions due to aesthetic deprivation due to excessive weight gain.
What are the important points in obesity treatment?
Obesity, which seriously reduces the quality of life, is a chronic disease that can be treated. Obesity treatment should be individualized.
In the treatment of obesity; Medical nutrition (diet) therapy, exercise therapy, behavioral change therapy, drug therapy, and surgical treatment methods are applied. Obesity treatment should be in cooperation with physicians, dieticians, psychologists and physiotherapists.
In addition, obesity can be treated with surgical methods. You can review our obesity (bariatric) surgery page on the subject.
How is obesity prevented?
In order to lose weight and control weight, expert help should be taken and an appropriate treatment plan should be determined. Physical activity level should be increased, daily walks and exercises should be made into a habit. Other methods to combat obesity are as follows:
- Avoid ready-to-eat foods with a long shelf life, calories.
- Unnatural sugar should not be consumed and daily salt intake should be considered.
- Healthy cooking techniques should be preferred
- Drink as much water as the body needs during the day
- Eating habits should be changed and meals should be eaten slowly
- Be careful about fat consumption, saturated fat should be taken as little as possible
- Attention should be paid to food variety, and a balanced diet should be taken from each food group.
- Vegetables and fruits should be eaten in season
- Alcohol intake should be avoided
Does obesity cause cancer?
Obesity increases the risk of cancer and the underlying mechanism is explained as follows: Adipose tissue produces high amounts of estrogen. High estrogen is responsible for breast, uterine, and some other cancers. Obese people usually have high levels of insulin or insulin resistance in their blood. This situation can trigger the development of some tumors. Fat cells produce hormones called adipokine. These hormones can accelerate malignant cell growth.
Is obesity fatal?
Obesity is a strong risk factor for many diseases and premature death. The life expectancy of a 25-year-old man who is facing an obesity problem decreases by 22% and his life expectancy is reduce by 12 years.
At what age is obesity seen?
Obesity, which is more common in women, is a disease that can be seen at all ages. Intake of unnecessary foods during pregnancy and breastfeeding because it produces milk; some of the weight gain at each birth is permanent; When the effect of estrogen hormone increasing fat tissue is combined with a less active life, it is easier for women to gain weight. Nowadays, there is a significant increase in obesity in young children and adolescents due to malnutrition.
What is obesity surgery?
Surgical intervention in the digestive system of patients to treat obesity disease is called obesity surgery. How obesity surgery is performed varies from patient to patient.
How many bariatric surgery methods are there?
Obesity surgeon will give information about all methods for those who want to be bariatric surgery. Surgical methods used in obesity treatment can be listed as follows:
- Sleeve Gastrectomy
- Gastric Bypass Surgery
- Mini Gastric Bypass
- Duodenal Switch
- Transit Bipartition (Type 2 Diabetes Surgery)
Who can have bariatric surgery?
In obesity, while selecting patients for surgical intervention, the following criteria should be followed;
- Ideal weight to be at least 80% above or Body Mass Index (BMI) above 40 kg / m2,
- The BMI is between 35-40 kg / m2 and the presence of accompanying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnea,
- Between the ages of 18-65,
- Obesity for at least 3 years,
- Absence of hormonal diseases,
- Failure to lose weight for at least 1 year despite medication and diet therapy,
- Should not be chronic alcohol and drug addicts,
- The patient should be at a psychosocial level to understand the importance of the surgical method to be applied, the possible risks and unwanted situations that may arise after the surgery,
- Having an acceptable level of surgical risk,
- The patient should be able to continue his treatment in harmony with the surgical team and physically, psychologically, socially or economically.
What does losing weight change?
According to scientific researches, in case of losing 5 kilos, it decreases the possibility of diabetes by 50%. Therefore, while deaths related to diabetes decreased by 40 percent; people’s lifespan is extended for 3-4 years.
In case of losing 10 kg, the probability of death from any cause decreases by 20%, the probability of death due to cancer by 37%, and the probability of getting cancer by 40%. 15 percent of the probability of death from heart disease; The probability of people going to the general hospital is reduces by 25%. When 10 kilos are lost, the life span extends for 5-6 years.
Is there any obesity medicine?
Although there are various medical treatment methods for obesity, these methods should be given by an endocrinologist. Products advertised as “obesity drugs” seen on the Internet should never be used without asking a doctor. The doctor will definitely inform people about the treatment of obesity.